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NAPA Report

Title Page



Executive Summary

Enhancing Local Firefighting Capacity

Panel Conclusions and Recommendations



NASF Report

Executive Summary


An Overview of Rural and Volunteer Fire Departments

Issues and Recommended Actions



Appendices Case Studies





APPENDIX A: Panel and Staff Listing

APPENDIX B: Example of a Memorandum of Understanding for Mutual Aid

APPENDIX C: Jefferson County’s Annual Fire Operating Plan: Summary of Contents

APPENDIX D: Participants, Firefighting Workshop Breakouts




Frank Fairbanks* Chair—City Manager, City of Phoenix, Arizona. Former positions with the Phoenix City Manager’s office: Management Assistant, Executive Assistant to the City Manager; Assistant City Manager. Former Volunteer with the Peace Corps and Teacher at the Universidad de Costa Rica.

Allan V. Burman*—President, Jefferson Solutions. Former Administrator for Federal Procurement Policy under Presidents Clinton, Bush, and Reagan. Has provided acquisition reform training and/or consulting services to a number of Federal agencies, including the National Institutes of Health, the Bureau of the Census, and the Departments of Education, Housing and Urban Development and Defense. Has also advised Congressional, Federal and other public and private entities on management and acquisition reform matters. Authored the Federal policy encouraging the use of performance-based contracting as a favored approach for services contracting.

Gail Christopher*—Guest Scholar, the Brookings Institution, Government Studies Department, and former Executive Director of the Institute for Government Innovation, Harvard’s John F. Kennedy School of Government. Former Co-Chair, Advisory Board, Alliance for Redesigning Government, National Academy of Public Administration; National Director and Creator, Americans All K-12 National Multicultural Educators Training Program; Associate for Development and Program Design, School of Divinity, Information and Services Clearinghouse, Howard University; National Director and Principal Architect of the National Reclaim Our Youth Violence Prevention Program; Executive Director, Family Resource Coalition of America. Member of Vice-President Al Gore’s Advisory Commission on Customer Service.

Patrick Kelly—President, PJ Kelly Consulting; Former USDA Forest Service positions including Assistant Director, National Fire and Aviation Program; Regional Aviation Officer, Pacific Northwest Region; Air Center Manager, Redmond, Oregon.

Lyle Laverty—Director, Colorado Division of Parks and Outdoor Recreation. Former Associate Deputy Chief, USDA Forest Service; Other USDA Forest Service positions included Director, Recreation, Heritage and Wilderness Resources in Washington, DC and the Pacific Northwest Region; Forest Supervisor, Mendocino National Forest in Northern California.

Keith F. Mulrooney*—Consultant. Former Special Assistant to the Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation; Executive Director, American Society for Public Administration; Urban Management Consultant; City Manager, City of Alexandria, Virginia; City Manager, City of Claremont, California.

Paul L. Posner*—Director, Federal Budget Issues, U.S. General Accounting Office. Former positions with U.S. General Accounting Office: Assistant Director, Intergovernmental Relations Group; Associate Director for Tax Policy and Administration; Former position with New York City; Director, Federal Program Review, New York City Budget Bureau.

Charles Wise*—Professor, School of Public and Environmental Affairs (SPEA), Indiana University. Former responsibilities with the School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University: Associate Dean; Associate Professor; Assistant Professor; Director, Graduate Programs in Public Affairs; Director, Undergraduate Programs in Public Affairs. Former positions with the U.S. Department of Justice: Director of Intergovernmental Affairs and Special Assistant for Policy Analysis.

* Academy Fellow


J. William Gadsby—Responsible Staff Officer. Vice President, Academy Studies, National Academy of Public Administration; project director on several recent Academy studies. Former Senior Executive Service; Director, Government Business Operations Issues, Federal Management Issues and Intergovernmental Issues, General Accounting Office.

Bruce D. McDowell—Project Director. President, Intergovernmental Management Associates. Former positions with U.S. Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations: Director of Government Policy Research; Executive Assistant to the Executive Director; Senior Analyst; Analyst. Former Director, Governmental Studies, National Council on Public Works Improvement. Former positions with the Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments: Director, Regional Management Information Service; Assistant Director, Regional Planning; Director, Program Coordination.

John Maupin—Senior Consultant. Former positions with the USDA Forest Service on ten National Forests in five regions: Fire Staff Officer; member of National Incident Teams, including Incident Commander and Deputy Incident Commander involved in managing complex wildland fires. Former smokejumper.

Joseph P. Mitchell, III—Research Associate. Project staff on past Academy studies: Airport Security, Federal Bureau of Investigation, National Marine Fisheries Service, Patent and Trademark Office, and Wildfire. Adjunct Professor, Center for Public Administration and Public Policy, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

Jennifer L. Hardgrove Blevins—Research Assistant. Research Assistant, National Academy of Public Administration. Former Intern in the environment division of the Office of Investment Policy at the Overseas Private Investment Corporation; Former Intern in the Government Relations Office at Defenders of Wildlife. MA in Environmental Policy, American University; BS in Forestry and Wildlife with a concentration in wildlife science, Virginia Tech.

Martha S. Ditmeyer—Project Associate. Program Associate, National Academy of Public Administration. Former staff member of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and of the Communications Satellite Corporation, Washington, D.C. and Geneva, Switzerland.






This Agreement, effective the 1st day of July, 2002, by and between the City of Prescott, a municipal corporation of the State of Arizona (“CITY”) and the Central Yavapai Fire District, a political subdivision of the State of Arizona(“DISTRICT”).


WHEREAS, the CITY and DISTRICT are empowered pursuant to A.R.S. §1l—952 and A.R.S. §49-805 to enter into this Agreement for purposes of carrying out their mutual responsibilities; and

WHEREAS, the CITY and DISTRICT wish to cooperate with each other in order to more effectively and economically provide automatic aid, in their respective service areas consistent with the terms and conditions set forth herein.

WHEREAS, it is the desire of the City and DISTRICT to improve the nature and coordination of emergency assistance to incidents that threaten loss of life and property with the geographic boundaries of our respective jurisdictions.

NOW THEREFORE, in consideration of mutual promises and covenants contained herein, the parties agree as follows:



1. Both parties agree to dispatch their respective assigned fire department units on an automatic basis. The communications center will automatically determine the closest available, most appropriate unit(s) regardless of jurisdictional boundaries. Each jurisdiction agrees that such unit(s) will respond.

2. It is agreed that the scope of this agreement includes automatic assistance in responding to fires, medical emergencies, hazardous materials incident, rescue and extrication situations and other types of emergency incidents that are within the standard scope of services provided by fire departments

3. This agreement shall encourage the development of cooperative procedures and protocols including but not limited to training, health and safety, and communications.

4. Both parties agree to utilize standard command procedures for efficient management of the emergency and for the safety of firefighters.

5. Both parties agree to develop and utilize standard minimum company standards to be used on the emergency incidents.

6. Both parties agree to utilize the NPFA standards as a guideline in maintaining a inventory of equipment on each apparatus.

7. Both parties agree that automatic aid is reciprocal. While automatic aid does not ensure that a community will receive the exact same amount of assistance as it gives, it does mean that both parties will provide some assistance outside its jurisdictional boundaries and that the level of service delivered within the automatic aid will be comparable.

8. Both parties agree that calls outside the response boundaries of the automatic aid agreement will be considered mutual aid where such agreements exist. Request for and response to mutual aid will be at the discretion of the individual department.

9. Both parties agree to maintain a combined incident reporting system and. share data and reports required by both parties,

10. Both parties agree to track automatic aid assistance through the combined incident reporting system.

11. Both parties agree that during working first alarm assignments, each agency will, backfill their respective reserve units.

12. Both parties agree that individual station response areas that involve an automatic ~id unit, shall have the approval from both agencies before any changes to the response area is conducted,


The Fire Chiefs from both departments shall jointly promulgate operational procedures in the implementation of this Agreement, from time to time, so long as consistent with City Charter, internal policy and the law. Until such time as said jointly promulgated operational procedures are the

CITY shall establish operational procedures and guidelines to he followed by the Training Director.

Each party shall be responsible for the safety and supervision of their own personnel while using each other’s facilities or while engaging in joint activities. Each party recognizes the inherent risks and dangerous nature of such activities and agrees to use the facilities at their own risk.

Each agency shall be responsible for the minimum staffing requirements, on a daily basis, as well as covering for emergency responses. Unless otherwise specifically provided in this Agreement, call—back of additional personnel as a result of a first alarm or greater emergency incident will be paid for by the agency in whose jurisdictional boundaries the emergency incident has occurred.

Each participating agency shall be responsible for absorbing the cost of its own Fire Prevention Assistant, and each agency will be responsible for its proportionate share of all costs incurred, other than in conjunction with emergency responses (such as administrative costs, and other costs unique to that participating agency). The parties acknowledge from time to time, special projects may be necessary, and that joint participation, from both a personnel and cost perspective, may be appropriate. Those special projects shall be pre—approved by the Fire Chiefs.

Except as specifically agreed to by both parties for a particular incident, or except as otherwise provided in this agreement1 neither agency shall reimburse the other for any costs incurred pursuant to this Agreement. Foam and EMS equipment used in an incident in excess of five hundred dollars ($5O0.OO), will be replenished by the agency in whose jurisdictional boundaries the emergency incident has occurred. In the event of declared disasters, both parties may apply for reimbursement from County, State or Federal agencies.


If any provision of this Agreement shall be held to be unconstitutional1 invalid, or unenforceable, it shall be deemed 5everabl~ however, the remainder of the Agreement shall not be affected and shall remain in full force and effect.


This Agreement shall become effective upon the effective adoption and execution of this agreement by both parties and the recordation of the same (the “Effective Date”), and shall automatically renew itself from year to year thereafter, until terminated.


Each party shall maintain, during the life of this Agreement, a policy of liability insurance naming the other party as an additional insured party in the amount of $1,000,000.00 per occurrence with aggregate 1iability coverage of $2,000,000.00. In the alternative, a party may self-insure in accordance with the above referenced liability amounts.


This Agreement will terminate automatically should the governing body of either party fail to allocate funds for its continued implementation. Should termination occur due to said non—allocation, the non—allocation party shall give ninety (9O) days written notice to the other party prior to termination.

In addition, either party may terminate their participation in this Agreement, for any reason, effective Three Hundred Sixty—Five (365) days from the giving of written notice to the other party at the following addresses

Central Yavapai Fire District
attn: Fire Chief
8555 S. Yavapal Road
Prescott Valley, Arizona 86314

City of Prescott
Attn: City Manager
P.O. Box 2059
Prescott, Arizona 86302

Either party may cancel this agreement pursuant to the requirements of A.R.S. § 38—511.


Each party hereby agrees to hold harmless from and indemnify the other party, or any of their departments, agencies, officers or employees for that portion of all costs, damages and liability incurred as a result of the negligent act or omission of an employee or agent of the indemnifying party, or in the case of activity in which the law applies a gross negligent standard, any cost, damage or liability incurred as a result of the gross negligence of the employee or agent of the indemnifying party.

This indemnification provision shall be several as a whole, and is contingent upon the same not acting to defeat either party’s insurance coverage relating to either party’s liability for the acts of its employees or agents.

Nothing herein shall be construed to prevent either party from alleging or petitioning for ~n allocation of fault or for contribution in the event of a. third party claim.

This agreement shall not be construed as a third party beneficiary contract, it shall be intended to benefit only the parties named specifically herein.


All other employees of a party to this Agreement, who works under the jurisdiction or control of, or who works within the jurisdictional boundaries of another party pursuant to this particular intergovernmental agreement, shall be deemed to be an employee of the party who is his or her primary employer, as provided in A.R.S. § 23—1022(0), and the primary employer/party of such an employee shall be solely liable for payment of workers’ compensation benefits for the purposes of this section, Each party herein shall comply with the previsions of A.R.S. § 23-1022(E) by posting the public notice required.


The parties, with regard to this Agreement, will, not discriminate on the grounds of race, color, national origin, religion, sex, disability or familial status in the selection and retention of subcontractors, including procurement of materials and leases of equipment, The parties will not participate either directly or indirectly in the discrimination prohibited by or pursuant to Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, Section l09 of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974, the Age Discrimination Act of 1975, and Executive orders 99—4 and 2000-4.


This Agreement supersedes all previous Intergovernmental Agreements between the CITY and DISTRICT relating to Automatic Aid.


This Agreement shall be binding upon the parties and any successor in interest. No provision herein is intended to create a third beneficiary interest in any person or entity, including but not limited to the respective employees or agents by either party.


The parties hereto expressly covenant and aqree that in the event of a dispute arising from this Agreement, each of the parties hereto waives any right to a trial by jury. In the event of litigation, the parties agree to submit to a trial before the Court.


The parties hereto expressly covenant and agree that in the event of litigation arising from this Agreement, neither party shall be entitled to an award of attorneys’ fees, either pursuant to the Contract, pursuant to A.R.S. §12—34l.0l(A) and (E), or pursuant to any other state or federal statue.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties enter into this agreement on the date set forth below.



At the Panel’s workshop in Boulder, Colorado, officials from Jefferson County supplied copies of their Annual Fire Operating Plan. This plan illustrates the kinds of information should be covered in an effective operating plan:

Introductory Matters
In the first pages, an Annual Operating Plan should contain plan approvals from authorized agencies; list the jurisdictions and participants within the plan’s area; identify the legal authority for the plan; and describe the purpose of the plan.

Definitions and Descriptions
This section should establish the legal responsibilities of the respective jurisdictional agencies by clearly identifying who is responsible for the following: (1) wildfire suppression within the area covered by the plan; (2) non-wildland fire emergencies; and (3) wildfire suppression damage. In addition, this section should deal with mutual aid dispatch, mutual aid move-up and cover facilities, and any special management considerations.

Fire Protection Resource List
This section should list fire protection resources within the area covered by the plan. For each resource listed, the plan should identify its Incident Command System (ICS) type, location, anticipated availability period, staffing levels, and key contacts.

Protection Area Maps
After including a map of the protection area, this section should establish that a landowner will be notified as soon as practical when their land is threatened by a wildfire. Moreover, it should determine who is responsible for responding to such a fire and whether this is reimbursable; identify any special management consideration areas; and establish procedures for updating the maps of protected areas.

Fire Readiness
This section should cover the following issues: (1) fire planning, (2) wildfire training needs and coordination, and (3) inspection schedules for fire equipment. For fire planning, it should establish rules to govern the development of pre-attack plans, trigger points for increasing or decreasing readiness, and responsibility for prevention plans and prescribed burn plans. For wildfire training needs and coordination, it should establish responsibility for providing training and protective gear. For inspection schedules, it should determine who conducts inspections and how often.

Wildfire Suppression Procedures
This section should determine when the ICS is to be utilized. As a general rule, these plans should establish that ICS—a standardized method of managing emergency incidents—be used to manage all wildfires. This system is based upon a common organizational structure, common terminology, common operating procedures, and known qualifications of emergency personnel. The plan should include an ICS incident organizational chart. It should also establish the principles to govern the following: (1) aerial detection flights; (2) notification about wildfires; (3) mutual aid dispatch areas; (4) initial attack dispatch levels; dispatching and resource order processes; (5) reinforcements and support; (6) move-up and cover locations and procedures; (7) interagency procurement, loaning, sharing, or exchanging and maintenance of facilities, equipment, and support services; (8) interagency sharing of communications systems and frequencies; (9) wildland fire situation analysis; (10) state emergency fire fund assistance; (11) dispatch centers or incident support facilities; (12) post-incident action analysis; and (13) out-of-jurisdiction assignments.

Aviation Procedures
This section should include an aviation map of the protected area; establish principles of flight following and frequency; identify the federal, state, local, and reservist resources available to support the aircraft; establish principles for aviation requests and operations; identify fixed wing and single-engine bases; and specify aircraft inspection schedules.

Fire Prevention
This section should establish responsibility for coordinating the following activities: releases about fire danger, distribution of fire prevention materials, adoption of fire restrictions, issuance of fire permits, and availability of fire weather reports. It should also establish principles to govern information and education, engineering, enforcement, and incident reports.

Fuel Management and Prescribed Fire Considerations
This should cover issues related to the management of fuels and the use of prescribed fire. In general, the respective agencies should agree to cooperate in the development and implementation of prescribed burning programs and projects; assign responsibility for wildfires resulting from an escaped prescribed fire; and ensure that burn plans for cooperative prescribed fires will cover cost sharing, reimbursement, and responsibility for suppression costs.

Cost Reimbursements
This section should determine which items are reimbursable and which are not. It should also cover cost reimbursement for dispatching, initial attack, mutual aid, reinforcements, and out-of-jurisdiction assignments. It should also establish billing and reimbursement procedures; resource use rates for personnel, equipment, and supplies and material; and cooperative resource rate forms.

Concluding Materials
The plan should include a general procedures section to establish periodic program reviews, processes for making changes during the year and updating the plan annually, and principles to resolve disputed. It should also include a directory of personnel and authorized agency representatives.



The Panel extends its appreciation to all the participants at the firefighting breakout sessions at the four workshops, each of whom is listed below. The Panel also extends its appreciation to other helpful contacts at the Department of the Interior, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, USDA Forest Service, U.S. Fire Administration, and others at the state and local level.



Tom Beddow, Deputy Director, Fire & Aviation, Southwest Region, USDA Forest Service, Springerville, Arizona

Kevin Boness, Arizona State Land Department, Flagstaff, Arizona

David Duggan, Fire Chief, Flagstaff Ranch Fire District, Flagstaff, Arizona

Bruce Greco, Fire Staff Officer, Coconino National Forest, Flagstaff, Arizona

Don Howard, Fire Chief, Structure Protection Specialist, Summit Fire Department, Flagstaff, Arizona

Roger Mineer, Fire Chief, Lakeside Fire Department, Lakeside, Arizona

David Mueller, Program Lead, Fuels Management Specialist, Bureau of Land Management, Arizona State Office-Resources Division, Phoenix, Arizona

Marilyn Price, Fire Chief, Linden Fire Dept, Show Low, Arizona

Miquelle Scheier, Senior Manager, Coconino County Rural Environment Corps

Paul Summerfelt, Fuel Management Officer, Flagstaff Fire Department, Fire Chief’s Office, Flagstaff, Arizona

Rich Van Demark, Forester, Regional Payson Area Project

Kevin Wiesmann, Project Coordinator, Northern Arizona Conservation Corps, Flagstaff, Arizona

Darrell Willis, Fire Chief, Prescott Fire Department, River Plateau, Prescott, Arizona

Rodger Zanotto, Stewardship Staff Officer, Coconino National Forest, USDA Forest Service, Flagstaff, Arizona



Justin Dombrowski, Wildland Fire Management Officer, City of Boulder, Boulder, Colorado

Mike Foley, Fire and Vegetation Management Officer, Arapaho and Roosevelt National Forest, Fort Collins, Colorado

Kristin Garrison, Assistant District Forester, Colorado State Forest Service-Franktown, Franktown, Colorado

Rich Homann, Fire Division Supervisor, Colorado State Forest Service, Fort Collins, Colorado

Bill Mills, Wildland Risk Management Officer, Colorado Springs Fire Department, Colorado Springs, Colorado

Christina Randall, Vegetation Management Program Coordinator, Colorado Springs Fire Department, Colorado Springs, Colorado

Rocco Snart, Wildfire Mitigation Specialist, Jefferson County Emergency Management, Golden, Colorado


BEND, OREGON—MAY 22-23, 2003

Jack Barringer, Chairman of the Board, Black Butte Ranch RFPD, Black Butte Ranch, Oregon

Gary Cooke, Fire Management Officer, Warm Springs Confederated Tribes, Warm Springs, Oregon

Earl Cordes, Fire Chief, Jefferson County RFPD # 1, Madras, Oregon

Don Jenson, Deputy Fire Chief, Operations, City of Bend Fire Department, Bend, Oregon

Larry Langley, Assistant Fire Chief, Crooked River Ranch, Rural Fire Protection District, Terrebonne, Oregon

Robert Madden, Battalion Chief, City of Bend Fire Department, Bend, Oregon

Bob Schnoor, Fire Chief, Crook County Rural Fire District, Prineville, Oregon

Larry Timchak, Forest Supervisor, Deschutes & Ochoco National Forests, USDA Forest Service, Region 6 & Pacific Northwest Research Station, Prineville, Oregon



Barry Baker, Ormond Beach Fire Department, Ormond Beach, Florida

M. C. Beadle, Chief, Fire/Rescue, City of Palm Coast, Palm Coast, Florida

Jamey Burnsed, Volusia Country Fire Department, Deland, Florida

Jim Cooper, Division Chief, Flagler County Fire Services, Bunnell, Florida

Bruce Harvey, Fuels/Prescribed Fire Specialist, USDA Forest Service, National Forest in Florida, Tallahassee, Florida

Andy Hirko, Plum Creek Timber Company, Palatka, Florida

Chuck Johnston, Wildfire Mitigation Specialist, Sarasota County Fire Department, Sarasota, Florida

John Kern, Deputy Chief, Field Operations, Florida Division of Forestry, Withlacoochee Forestry Center, Brooksville, Florida

Bill Scaramellino, Forest Area Supervisor, Florida Division of Forestry, De Leon Springs, Florida


[1] The NASF Steering Group consisted of the International Association of Fire Chiefs, the National Volunteer Fire Council, the U.S. Fire Administration, the National Fire Protection Association, the National Association of State Foresters, the National Association of Counties, the USDA Forest Service, and the Department of the Interior.

[2] National Academy of Public Administration. Wildfire Suppression: Strategies for Containing Costs, September 2002. p. 43.

[3] A “local” fire department works under the jurisdiction of a town, city, county, or other level of local government. It can be paid or volunteer, urban, or rural.

[4] National Association of State Foresters Steering Group. The Changing Role and Needs of Local, Rural, and Volunteer Fire Departments in the Wildland-Urban Interface (Washington, DC: June 30, 2003).

[5] Specifically, the manual states the following: “Personnel from agencies who do not subscribe to the NWCG qualification standards may be used on agency-managed fires. However, agency fire managers must ensure these individuals are only assigned to duties commensurate with their abilities, agency qualifications, and equipment capabilities.”

[6] NASF Steering Group, page 17.

[7] National Association of State Foresters Steering Group, page 14.

[8] National Academy of Public Administration, Managing Wildland Fire: Enhancing Capacity to Implement the Federal Interagency Policy (Washington, DC, 2001).

[9] NASF Steering Group, page 20.

* Academy Fellow

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